Pattern Miner Prospective Examples

From OpenCog

This page gathers together some examples of patterns that we would like to have mined by the Pattern Miner in the relatively near term (written May 1, 2017):

patterns in English and Lojban NLP parses

(Ruiting)

patterns in PLN inference histories

Context-free patterns

An example here would be "basic chaining of deductions"

ExecutionOutputLink
  GroundedSchemaNode "deduction-formula"
  ListLink
    ImplicationLink
      VariableNode "$A"
      VariableNode "$C"
    ExecutionOutputLink
      GroundedSchemaNode "deduction-formula"
      ListLink
        ImplicationLink
          VariableNode "$A"
          VariableNode "$B"
        ImplicationLink
          VariableNode "$A"
          VariableNode "$B1"
        ImplicationLink
          VariableNode "$B1"
          VariableNode "$B"
    ExecutionOutputLink
      GroundedSchemaNode "deduction-formula"
      ListLink
        ImplicationLink
          VariableNode "$B"
          VariableNode "$C"
        ImplicationLink
          VariableNode "$B"
          VariableNode "$B2"
        ImplicationLink
          VariableNode "$B2"
          VariableNode "$C"

This says

  • A implies B1, and B1 implies B, therefore A implies B
  • B implies B2, and B2 implies C, therefore B implies C
  • A implies B, and B implies C, therefore A implies C

which can be graphically represented by the upside-down inference tree

Implication A B1  Implication B1 B   Implication B B2   Implication B2 C
--------deduction-formula---------   ---------deduction-formula---------
         Implication A B                       Implication B C
         -----------------deduction-formula-------------------
                           Implication A C

Context-dependent patterns

An example would be

InheritanceLink
  VariableNode "$P"
  ConceptNode "Person"

Inheritance
  VariableNode "$Q"
  ConceptNode "Person"

ExecutionOutputLink
  GroundedSchemaNode "deduction-formula"
  ListLink
    InheritanceLink
      VariableNode "$P"
      VariableNode "$X"
    ExecutionOutputLink
      GroundedSchemaNode "sim-to-inh-formula"
      ListLink
        InheritanceLink
          VariableNode "$P"
          VariableNode "$Q"
        SimilarityLink
          VariableNode "$P"
          VariableNode "$Q"
    InheritanceLink
      VariableNode "$Q"
      VariableNode "$X"

If P and Q are people, then one good way to evaluate if P has a certain property, is to find some similar person Q and assess whether they have that property... Which can be graphically represented by the following inference tree

Similarity P Q
-sim-to-inh-fo-
Inheritance P Q    Inheritance Q X
--------deduction-formula---------
         Inheritance P X

patterns in statistically learned NLP parses (from partially learned grammars

(Linas)

patterns in MOSES models imported to Atomspace

for a gene expression data set, genes over expressed or under expressed together in case samples could indicate a functional pathway or other ontological category differentiating cases from controls.

 (AndLink )
   (VariableNode $var_1)
   (VariableNode $var_2)
 (AndLink )
   (NotLink )
     (VariableNode $var_1)
   (NotLink )
     (VariableNode $var_2)

the third possibility is one over expressed gene and one under expressed gene, possibly indicating mutually exclusive pathways/categories

 (AndLink )
   (VariableNode $var_1)
   (NotLink )
     (VariableNode $var_2)


patterns spanning said MOSES models, and biological background knowledge

gene ontology (GO) background knowledge corresponding to the respective patterns above

 (AndLink )
   (MemberLink )
     (VariableNode $var_1)
     (ConceptNode "GO:xxx")
   (MemberLink )
     (VariableNode $var_2)
     (ConceptNode "GO:xxx")
 (AndLink )
   (MemberLink )
     (VariableNode $var_1)
     (ConceptNode "GO:yyy")
   (MemberLink )
     (VariableNode $var_2)
     (ConceptNode "GO:yyy")
 (AndLink )
   (MemberLink )
     (VariableNode $var_1)
     (ConceptNode "GO:xxx")
   (MemberLink )
     (VariableNode $var_2)
     (ConceptNode "GO:yyy")