List of test syllogisms

From OpenCog

It seems that applying PLN + RelEx2Logic to the basic syllogism

Major premise: All men are mortal.
Minor premise: Socrates is a man.
Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.

has been a useful exercise.

Thus I suggest that we follow this up by attempting some more complex syllogism examples in a similar way -- i.e. supplying the premises to the system in English and having PLN do the reasoning.

Once NLGen can do surface realization, we can also have it articulate the conclusion in English.

Initial test list

I have assembled an initial list of test syllogisms from

It is the examples on their website, plus their Easy and Medium syllogism tests. Their Hard syllogism test didn't actually look any harder than the Medium one, so I ignored it.

Major premise:   If Johnny is eating sweets every day, he is placing
                              himself at risk for diabetes.
Minor premise:   Johnny does not eat sweets everyday

Conclusion:       Therefore Johnny is not placing himself at risk for

Major premise:   Either the meeting is at school or at home.
Minor premise:   The meeting is not at home.
Conclusion:      Therefore the meeting is at school.

Major premise:  The jar is filled with yellow marbles
Minor premise:  I have a yellow marble in my hand
Conclusion:       The yellow marble was taken out of the jar

Major premise:  Eating a lot makes you lose weight
Minor premise:  Craig is obese

Question:          What can we do to make Craig lose weight?
Conclusion:       Make Craig eat a lot

All Canadians are right handed
All right handed people are opticians
Conclusion: Some opticians are Canadian

1. A car is not a boat.
2. Some boats are water bicycles

A. No boat is a water bicycle
B. Some water bicycles are no cars
C. No boat is a car
D. Some cars ware no water bicycles

a. Some travellers are not caucasian.
b. No tourists are travellers.
conclusion is: Some tourists are not caucasian.

a. All trees are plants.
b. Some trees are bushes.
Conclusion is: No plants are bushes.

a. No pilots are stewardesses.
b. All passengers are stewardesses.
conclusion is: Some pilots are passengers.

a. Some plants are not green.
b. No organisms are plants.
conclusion is: Some organisms are not green.

a. All instruments are pianos.
b. No instruments are guitars.
Conclusion is: Some guitars are not pianos.

a. No chemists are athletes.
b. All managers are athletes.
conclusion is: Some chemists are managers

a. No bee keepers are cooks.
b. All Dutch are bee keepers.
Conclusion is: Some cooks are not Dutch.

a. All streets are routes of transportation.
b. No streets are racing tracks.
Conclusion is: Some racing tracks are not routes of transportation.

a. All men are brothers.
b. All brothers are fathers.
Conclusion is: Some fathers are men.

a. No movie stars are comedians.
b. All producers are movie stars.
Conclusion is: Some comedians are no producers.
a. All bikes are transport.
b. Some bikes are hometrainers.
Conclusion is: No transports are hometrainers.

a. No addicts are drug users.
b. No drug users are alcoholics.
Conclusion is: All addicts are alcoholics.
a. All stones are rocks.
b. All rocks are mountains.
Conclusion is: Some mountains are stones.
a. No A’s are B’s.
b. No B’s are C’s.
Conclusion is: All A’s are C’s.

a. All mountains are hills.
b. All Mount Everests are mountains.
Which is a conclusion?
 		All hills are Mount Everests
 		All Mount Everests are hills
 		No hills are Mount Everests
 		No mountains are Mount Everests

a. All houses are residences.
 b. All sheds are residences.

Which is a conclusion? 
 		Some sheds are houses
 		All houses are sheds
 		No houses are sheds
 		None of the above

a. Some bosses are employees.
 b. All employees are elderly.

Which is a conclusion? 
 		Some employees are not elderly
 		Some bosses are elderly
 		Some bosses are no elderly
 		None of the above

a. A car is not a boat.
b. Some boats are water bicycles.
Which is a conclusion?
 		No boats are water bicycles
 		Some water bicycles are no cars
 		Some cars are not water bicycles
 		None of the above

a. A bird is no fish.
b. Some fish are sharks.
Which is a conclusion?
 		No fishes are sharks
 		Some sharks are no birds
 		No sharks are birds
 		Some birds are no sharks

a. All divers are adventurers.
b. No divers are wimps.
Which is a conclusion?
 		No adventurers are wimps
 		No wimps are adventurers
 		Some adventurers are no wimps
 		None of the above

a. All smart asses are dumb asses.
b. Some bad asses are smart asses.
Which is a conclusion?
 		All dumb asses are bad asses
 		Some dumb asses are bad asses
 		No bad asses are dumb asses
 		Some bad asses are no dumb asses

Word Sense Disambiguation

The following are examples of embedding a sentence into context, by means of 'spreading activation' of related ideas. The example sentence is a canonical example, taken from Mihalcea's word-sense disambiguation work (2005).

Major premise:
    The church bells were ringing on Sunday.
Minor premises:
    Some churches are buildings
    Some churches are political organizations
    Some buildings contain bells.
    The church referred to in the major premise is a building,
    not a political organization.


Major premise:
    The church bells were ringing on Sunday.
Minor premises:
     Alexander Bell is a person
     Some bells make a ringing sound
     The bell referred to in the major premise is not Alexander Bell.


Major premise:
    The church bells were ringing on Sunday.
Minor premises:
    Bell ringing can be a warning.
    Bell ringing can be a call.
    Churches call worshipers to service.
    The church was calling worshipers to service on Sunday.