To be pedantic, it could be called a Cognitive Process Category. To refer to the instance of a cognitive process inside a particular mind, we would use Cognitive Process Instance. We suggest to use the general term Cognitive Process to refer to the category rather than instance usage.
Ways of Subcategorizing Cognitive Processes
Modern Cognitive Science contains a fairly well-agreed-upon listing of the set of cognitive processes and Cognitive Structures. There is less agreement on how these processes and structures interrelate, and how they work internally.
The Mind Ontology Links section of this page, under the grouping "Cognitive Science Style Categorization of Cognitive Processes," links to entries corresponding to a variety of well-accepted specific cognitive processes.
It is interesting to seek a more abstract way of categorizing Cognitive Processes than is afforded by contemporary Cognitive Science. One approach, based on the theory of Self Generating Systems, is given at http://www.goertzel.org/dynapsyc/2006/ForwardBackward.htm .
Some entries related to this categorization are given in the Mind Ontology Links section of this page, under the heading "System Theoretic Categorization of Cognitive Processes."